Karl Fischer Titration, Reagents and Standards

Karl Fischer reagents and standards that ensure rapid, precise, and consistent results for water determination in solid, liquid, and gas samples. This product range includes reagents for volumetric and coulometric methods.

It is not without reason that no other method is as widespread as this one: determination of water content according to Karl Fischer is rapid, accurate and reliable; it is therefore the method of choice for quality and in-process control, production, and research and development.
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Aquastar® Reagents for Volumetric Karl Fischer Titration

The volumetric Karl Fischer titration method is used to determine water content by adding iodine containing titrant to the sample, which is then dissolved or dispersed in a suitable solvent. This method is preferably
used when the water content of your sample is between 0.01 and 100%. The unknown water content of the
sample is determined by measuring the required volume of Karl Fischer titrant to reach the titration
endpoint. The sample is completely dissolved or the water is completely extracted with strict exclusion of atmospheric humidity and titrated with the Karl Fischer titrant. The titration end point is indicated by an excess of iodine and is determined potentiometrically.

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Aquastar® Coulometric Reagents

Coulometric Karl Fischer Titration is preferred for liquid samples with very low water content (10 ppm –
10,000 ppm). Our Aquastar range of coulometric Karl Fischer reagents is available for titration cells with and without a diaphragm. Our coulometric reagents CombiCoulomat frit, CombiCoulomat fritless, and Anolyte
for coulometric Karl Fischer titration without diaphragm are free from chloroform for precise results. For
your convenience, our combined CombiCoulomat frit and CombiCoulomat fritless reagents contain all
reaction components in a single solution and can be used for both anode and cathode cells. We also offer
special methanol-free reagents for aldehyde and ketone samples. Our Anolyte K and Catholyte K reagents
are designed to determine exact water contents in aldehydes and ketones samples.

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Aquastar® Water Standards

Within the European Union and worldwide, there is an increasing demand for more transparent and
comparable analytical results. This is particularly true for water determinations according to Karl Fischer, it is therefore necessary to use reliable reference materials to ensure accurate results. The Aquastar®
portfolio contains a broad range of excellent water standards for titer determination, monitoring Karl Fischer equipment, and verifying measuring results. These water standards are certified reference materials in
accordance with ISO 17034 and measured using validated procedures in our DIN EN ISO/IEC 17025
accredited laboratory. To maintain transparency, a batch-specific certificate of analysis for quality
management (QM) documentation is provided.

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Auxiliaries for Karl Fisher Titration

Both the complete dissolution of the sample plus the maintenance of a pH between 5 and 7 are extremely
important in order to achieve accurate water determination results. When strong acids or alkalis are used as samples, the pH value can be pushed out of equilibrium. The addition of special buffer solutions ensures
that the Karl Fischer reaction can proceed in the correct pH range. When working with samples that may
disturb the pH of the Karl Fischer reaction such as strong bases or strong acids, we offer two ready-to-use
buffer solutions. These can be added to maintain the optimum pH range for accurate Karl Fischer results. 

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